Prepositions with Verbs

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We have seen that when using preposition with pronouns or nouns, the form of pronouns or nouns changes which is called सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi or Oblique case form in English.
Same way happens while using preposition with verb.

For example, in English we say "after doing", "before singing", "while writing". 
In English we use “-ing” form of verb for proposition usage. 

In marathi ण्या (NyA) is suffixed to verb.

e.g.  
Verb in English
vern in Marahti
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi of verb
do
कर (kar )

करण्या karaNyA

speak
बोल (bol )
बोलण्या (bolaNyA )
dance
नाच (nAch )
नाचण्या (nAchaNyA )


About speaking :- बोलण्याबद्दल (bolaNyAbaddal)
For eating :- खाण्यासाठी (khANyAsAThI)
reason of coming :- येण्याचे कारण (yeNyAche kAraN)

Special behaviour for preposition “after”
Preposition "after" can be used two ways. Consider two sentences.
1) She spoke after my dancing
2) She spoke after I danced

The first sentence can be formed by above rule.
After dancing :- नाचण्यानंतर (nAchaNyAnaMtar )
She spoke after my dancing  -> माझ्या नाचण्यानंतर ती गायली (mAjhyA nAchaNyAnaMtar tI gAyalI)

In second sentence we used “after I danced”.
“I danced” in marathi is “मी नाचलो
So in such cases we suffix ल्या (lyA) instead of ण्या (NyA)
So “after danced” becomes नाचल्यानंतर (nAchalyAnaMtar)

Full senetece will be
She spoke after I danced  ->  मी नाचल्यानंतर ती बोलली (mI nAchalyAnaMtar tI bolalI
)
He cried after she went -> ती गेल्यानंतर तो रडला  ( tI gelyAnaMtar to raDalA ) 


When you are talking about past action or action about to happen soon; we suffix चे(che) to this verb form. So these sentences can be said in two ways. 

Below examples will make it clear. First translation is usual way and other using "verb form" + चे(che) 

He told about his coming to school -> 
तो शाळेत आला असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlA ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत आल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

He told me that he is coming to school -> 
तो शाळेत येत आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येत असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)


He told me that he is going to come to school -> 
तो शाळेत येणार आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येणार असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

I don't remember she having said something like this -> 
ती असे काही बोलली आहे असे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI Ahe ase malA AThavat nAhI)
ती असे काही बोलली असल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI asalyAche malA AThavat nAhI)

I don't remember she having eaten mango -> 
तीने आंबा खाल्ला असे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllA ase malA AThavat nAhI)
तीने आंबा खाल्ल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllyAche malA AThavat nAhI)


Special behaviour for preposition “while”
Suffix for “while” is “ताना (tAnA)

“While” can also be used in two ways
1) Do not stop while I speak
2) Do not stop while I am speaking

In first sentence the verb is simple present tense.
In such cases the suffix in “ताना (tAnA)
While speak :- बोलताना (bolatAnA )
While do :- करताना (karatAnA )
While dance :- नाचताना ( nAchatAnA )

In second sentence the verb is present continuous tense.
I am speaking -> मी बोलत असतो (mI bolat asato )  
(Note :- Refer section "sentence with "Used to")
Suffix ताना (tAnA) gets added to “असतो” and it becomes असताना (asatAnA)

So in short for second style the verbs will be as shown below:-

While speaking :- बोलत असताना (bolat asatAnA)
While doing :- करत असताना (karat asatAnA)
While dancing :- नाचत असताना ( nAchat asatAnA)


Special behaviour for preposition “to”
Suppose we are telling someone “Come to see this movie”, “Come to drink coffee”.
Here we used “to see”, “to drink” , we did not use “seeing”,”drinking” etc.
Similarly in Marathi we use different form for preposition “to”
We append आयला (AyalA) to verb

to see     :- बघायला  (baghAyalA )
to do      :- करायला (karAyalA)
to speak :- बोलायला (bolAyalA)
to dance :- नाचायला(nAchAyalA)

Come to see this photo    :- फोटो बघायला ये  (phoTo baghAyalA ye )
Come to eat with me       :- माझ्याबरोबर जेवायला ये (mAjhyAbarobar jevAyalA ye)


Special behaviour for “and”

In English we use preposition "and" to join to two verbs to indicate one action followed by another. E.g. “come and see this”, “sit and eat it” etc.



In Marathi we will suffix ऊन  (Un) to first verb to indicate continuation.



e.g. 
Sit and watch          :-  बसून बघ (basUn bagh)

come and go                  :- येऊन जा  (yeUn jA)

he came and saw it        :- त्याने येऊन बघितले (tyAne yeUn baghitale )

They will go and check it :- ते जाऊन तपासतील (te jAUn tapAsatIl)

smile and say                :- हसून बोल  ( hasoon bol)

Special behavior for "till","until"

In English we say "wait till he comes", "do not stop until I say 
"Till","Until" in Marathi is पर्यंत (paryaMt )
In Marathi we will suffix ए(e)  to verb stem. If verb stem does not end with vowel अ(a) then it is suffixed with ई(I).
e.g.
till I go -> मी बोले पर्यंत (mI bole paryMt )
until she smiles -> ती हसे पर्यंत ( tI hase paryaMt )
till he goes -> तो जाई पर्यंत ( to jAI paryaMt )
until we come -> आम्ही येई पर्यंत ( AmhI yeI paryaMt )



Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6l9IgZnd_FI


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Marathi. Learn Marathi grammar and many aspects Marathi language online.
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8 comments:

  1. Very nicely explained

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks.
      May I know your name please. Also I would like to take more feedback from you about my blog ; can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  2. Hi Lele Sir,

    I am not clear with as when to use asato
    Eg. I am speaking -> मी बोलत असतो
    As per my understanding it should be Mi bolat ahe or Mi bolto aahe.
    Please help to understand.
    Thanks

    PG.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Pradeep; as mentioned there in note please refer lesson of "sentence with "Used to" for more details.
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/sentence-using-used-to-phrase.html

      Let me know if reading that lesson clarifies your doubt; else write again.

      Delete
  3. Dear Kaushik,

    Could you please add "When you are talking about past action or action about to happen soon", with hindi example too?
    It would be more clear if hindi reference is also available.
    Thanks a ton.

    PG

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Added it in Hindi lesson to. Please refer http://learn-marathi-from-hindi-kaushiklele.blogspot.in/2013/03/prepositions-with-verbs.html

      Let me know if there is better Hindi translation for such sentences.

      Delete
  4. Hi
    How do we say 'that' in marathi to join two halves of a sentence?. For example "she told me that I can come" or "He told her that it was ok"
    thanks
    Mou Chakraborty

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Marathi word is की (kI)
      "she told me that I can come" ->
      ती मला म्हणाली की मी येऊ शकतो (tI malA mhaNAlI kI mI yeU shakato

      "He told her that it was ok" ->
      त्याने तिला सांगितले की हे ठीक आहे (tyAne tilA sAMgitale kI he ThIk Ahe)

      For more conjunctions refer
      http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2013/05/list-of-conjunctions-in-marathi.html

      Delete