Compound verbs in Marathi

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In Marathi verbs देणे, टाकणे, घेणे, बसणे (deNe, TAkaNe, gheNe, basaNe) etc. are used along with other verbs to emphasize the activity or specify subtly different shade of meaning. 

1) टाकणे ( TAkaNe)
This verb is used to indicate that person is not interested or ready to take action and still he is doing or being asked to do the activity.

Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of टाकणे ( TAkaNe)

Consider this conversation :-

Son to his mother :-  I am very tired. I do not want to study.
Mother :- It very little. Finish it off in 10 minutes and go to bed. 

To finish :- संपवणे (saMpavaNe)  
To finish off :- संपवून टाकणे (saMpavUn TAkaNe)

So conversation will be
Son :- आई मी खूप दमलो आहे. मला अभ्यास करायचा नाही.
(AI mI khUp damalo Ahe. malA abhyAs karAyachA nAhI.)
Mother :- 
थोडासाच आहे. दहा मिनिटात संपवून टाक आणि जा झोपायला
(thoDAsAch Ahe. dahA miniTAt saMpavUn TAk ANi jA jhopAyalA)

Other example
Do not hesitate. Speak it out :- संकोच करू नकोस. बोलून टाक (saMkoch karU nakos. bolUn TAk)
Nobody is looking at us. Just do it :- कोणी आपल्याकडे बघत नाहिये. करून टाक लवकर (koNI ApalyAkaDe baghat nAhiye. karUn TAk lavakar )

That dish tasted so bad; I somehow managed to gulp it :- तो पदार्थ इतका घाणेरडा होता की मी कसाबसा गिळून टाकला ( to padArth itakA ghANeraDA hotA kI mI kasAbasA giLUn TAkalA)

2) देणे (deNe)
It is using in sentences like “Let him play”, “Let him study quietly”
This is separately discussed in lesson
Refer point 2) Using “Let” for allowing activity

3) घेणे (gheNe)
It is used to indicate that person is using or being asked to use of opportunity to carry out the activity.
Otherwise the activity may not be possible or allowed.  

Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of घेणे (gheNe)

e.g. I was writing a confidential letter. I went out for a minute to drink water. He quickly came and read the letter. 
To read :- वाचणे (vAchaNe)
So here we will use वाचून घेणे (vAchUn gheNe)
And senescence will be 
मी गोपनीय पत्र लिहीत होतो. एक मिनिटभर पाणी प्यायला बाहेर गेलो. तेवढ्यात त्याने येऊन पत्र वाचून घेतले.
(mI gopanIy patr lihIt hoto. ek miniTabhar pANI pyAyalA bAher gelo. tevaDhyAt tyAne yeUn patr vAchUn ghetale)

I am free now. Ask whatever you want to ask; right now :- 
मी आत्ता मोकळा आहे. तुला काय विचारायचे आहे ते आत्ताच विचारून घे 
(mI AttA mokaLA Ahe. tulA kAy vichArAyache Ahe te AttAch vichArUn ghe)

I owe you money. I am helpless. You may call me whatever you want 
मी तुझं देणं लागतो. मी असहाय्य आहे. तुला हवं ते तू बोलून घे
(mI tujhaM deNM lAgato. mI asahaayy Ahe. tulA havM te tU bolUn ghe)

घेणे (gheNe) is also used to indicate notion of "get it done by..."
Get that work done by him :- 
त्याच्याकडून काम करून घे (tyAchyAkaDUn kAm karUn ghe)

I made her take exercise everyday :- 
मी तीच्याकडून रोज व्यायाम करून घेतला (mI tIchyAkaDUn roj vyAyAm karUn ghetalA)

4) काढणे (kADhaNe)
It is added to emphasize that activity was done vigorously. 

Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of काढणे (kADhaNe)

There were ink spots on shirt. I washed clothes very hard 
शाईचे डाग पडले होते. मी कपडे धुवून काढले  (shAIche DAg paDale hote. mI kapaDe dhuvUn kADhale )

The batsman hit the every ball of novice bowler very hard
फलंदाजाने नवशिक्या गोलंदाजाचा प्रत्येक बॉल फोडून काढला
(phalaMdAjAne navashikyA golMdAjAchA pratyek b~ol phoDUn kADhalA)

5a) बसणे (basaNe) / जाणे(jANe)
To indicate that action was done unknowingly and unintentionally.

Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of बसणे (basaNe)
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of जाणे(jANe)

I did not know he was your father. I just told him we drank liquor last night.
मला माहित नव्हतं की ते तुझे वडील आहेत. मी त्यांना सांगून बसलो की आपण काल दारू प्यायली 
(malA mAhit navhatM kI te tujhe vaDIl Ahet. mI tyAMnA sAMgUn basalo kI ApaN kAl dArU pyAyalI)
मला माहित नव्हतं की ते तुझे वडील आहेत. मी त्यांना सांगून गेलो की आपण काल दारू प्यायली 
(malA mAhit navhatM kI te tujhe vaDIl Ahet. mI tyAMnA sAMgUn gelo kI ApaN kAl dArU pyAyalI)

Ohh my God !! What a terrible thing I have done !!
अरे देवा मी हे काय करून बसलो ( are devA mI he kAy karUn basalo)
अरे देवा मी हे काय करून गेलो( are devA mI he kAy karUn gelo)

5b) It is also indicate that other person has no option but to do the activity.
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+(t)  then form of बसणे (basaNe)

I warned you many times. But you paid no heed. Now keep crying
मी तुला सूचना दिली होती. पण तू ऐकले नाहीस. आता रडत बस 
(mI tulA sUchanA dilI hotI. paN tU aikale nAhIs. AtA raDat bas)

I have hidden it in secret place. Now she will search it forever.
मी ते एका गुप्त जागी लपवले आहे. आता ती कायम ते शोधत बसेल
(mI te ekA gupt jAgI lapavale Ahe. AtA tI kAyam te shodhat basel)

6) राहणे (rAhaNe)
It is used to To indicate the continuity of action i.e. we use it in “To keep doing” form of sentence. It is discussed in details in lesson

राहणे (rAhaNe) can be used to indicate that action was missed. 
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+आयचा/आयची/आयचे(AyachA/AyachI/Ayache) etc.  then form of राहणे (rAhaNe)
Main verb+आयचा/आयची/आयचे(AyachA/AyachI/Ayache) etc.  then राहून and then form of जाणे (jANe)
Form of आयचा (AyachA) is decided as per gender and multiplicity of noun. 

Generally in such sentence subject is omitted.
I forgot to tell you -> It was missed to tell you ->
तुला सांगायचे राहिले  (tulA sAMgAyache rAhile)
तुला सांगायचे राहून गेले (tulA sAMgAyache rAhUn gele)

She was in hurry she could not see the sign. 
ती घाईत होती. पाटी बघायची राहिली (tI ghAIt hotI. pATI baghAyachI rAhilI)
ती घाईत होती. पाटी बघायची राहून गेली (tI ghAIt hotI. pATI baghAyachI rAhUn gelI)

Though verb राहणे (rAhaNe) is used for two different moods so observe difference in sentence structure to get correct meaning.

बघत राहिलो  ( baghat rAhilo)  :- kept watching 
बघायचे राहिले (baghAyache rAhile) :- missed to watch
बघायचे राहून गेले (baghAyache rAhUn gele) :- missed to watch

बोलत राहीन (bolat rAhIn) :-will keep talking/saying

बोलायचे राहील (bolAyache rAhIl) :- will miss  talking/saying
बोलायचे राहून जाईल (bolAyache rAhUn jAIl) :- will miss talking/saying

7) जाणे (jANe)
Used when asking some one to start & continue the activity 
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+(t)  then form of जाणे (jANe)

Your plan failed. Now at least start following my advice
तुझी योजना फसली. आता तरी माझे ऐकत जा 
(tujhI yojanA phasalI. AtA tarI mAjhe aikat jA)

If he had taken exercise everyday then ..
जर तू रोज व्यायाम करत गेला असतास तर ..
(jar tU roj vyAyAm karat gelA asatAs tar ..)

It is also used to indicate that activity was about to start when something else happened
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+आयला(AyalA)  then form of जाणे (jANe)

I was about to open door when I saw -> 
मी दरवाजा उघडायला गेलो तेवढ्यात मला पोलिस दिसले
(mI daravAjA ughaDAyalA gelo tevaDhyAt malA polis disale)

Every time he tries to ask her for marriage; he comes back afraid
प्रत्येकवेळी तो तिला मागणी घालायला जातो आणि घाबरून परत येतो.
(pratyekaveLI to tilA mAgaNI ghAlAyalA jAto ANi ghAbarUn parat yeto.)

Thus जाणे (jANe) is used in three different meanings in three different ways
बोलत गेलो  (bolat gelo )  :- kept speaking
बोलून गेलो ( bolUn gelo ) :- spoke unintentionally 
बोलयला गेलो ( bolayalA gelo ) :- was about to speak

8) म्हणणे (mhaNaNe)
It is used when you want to predict consequences of some activity.
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+आयचा/आयची/आयचे(AyachA/AyachI/Ayache)  then form of म्हणणे (mhaNaNe) then तर(tar)
Form of आयचा & म्हणणे (mhaNaNe) is decided based on gender and multiplicity of noun.

If we think of eating mango then .. ->आंबा खायचा म्हटला तर .. (AMbA khAyachA mhaTalA tar ..)
If we think of eating mangos then .. ->आंबे खायचे म्हटले तर .. (AMbe khAyache mhaTale tar ..)

If he decides to take revenge then no one  can stop him
जर त्याने सूड घ्यायचा म्हटला तर कोणीही त्याला थांबवू शकत नाही
(jar tyAne sUD ghyAyachA mhaTalA tar koNIhI tyAlA thAMbavU shakat nAhI)

9) ठेवणे(ThevaNe)
It will be used to indicate that activity is done on that moment and its results/effect will be seen later.
Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of ठेवणे(ThevaNe)

Give him your information so that he can tell you when he finds any suitable opportunity
त्याला तुझी महिती देऊन ठेव म्हणजे त्याला काही संधी दिसली की तो तुला सांगेल
(tyAlA tujhI mahitI deUn Thev mhaNaje tyAlA kAhI saMdhI disalI kI to tulA sAMgel)

Keep tea ready I am coming in two minutes
चहा करून ठेव मी दोन मिनिटात येतो आहे
(chahA karUn Thev mI don miniTAt yeto Ahe) 

We have booked tickets last week itself so that we can watch first-day-first-show
आम्ही मागच्या आठवड्यातच तिकिटे काढून ठेवली आहेत म्हणजे आम्ही पहिला शो बघू शकू
(AmhI mAgachyA AThavaDyAtac tikiTe kADhUn ThevalI Ahet mhaNaje AmhI pahilA sho baghU shakU)

10) चुकणे(chukaNe)
It is used to indicate that activity is completed which is it is difficult to revert or it may cause unpleasant effect.

Sentence structure is :-
Main verb+ऊन(Un)  then form of चुकणे(chukaNe)

I realized that it was fraud call; I had already given my password.
माझ्या लक्षात आलं की तो फसवा फोनकॉल होता; पण मी तर आधीच पासवर्ड सांगून चुकलो होतो.
(mAjhyA lakShAt AlaM kI to phasavA phonak~ol hotA; paN mI tar AdhIch pAsavarD sAMgUn chukalo hoto.

King had given him promise that he will give up throne; if guest wins bet.
राजा त्याला वचन देऊन चुकला होता की जर पाहुणा जिंकला तर तो सिंहासन सोडेल
(rAjA tyAlA vachan deUn chukalA hotA kI jar pAhuNA jiMkalA tar to siMhAsan soDel)

A:- Can you come with me for dinner ?
B:- No. I have decided plan for tonight with Mr.C

A:- आज रात्री जेवायला येशील का? (Aj rAtrI jevAyalA yeshIl kA?)
B:-  नाही. मी Mr. C बरोबर आजचा प्लॅन करून चुकलो आहे.
(nAhI. mI shrI. c barobar AjachA pl~an karUn chukalo Ahe )

11) येणे(yeNe)
In lesson related to Passive voice(Style 2) we have seen how verb येणे(yeNe) is used. Such sentences can be used to indicate part of activity which was done casually but it was noticed by the narrator. 
I was talking with him about his school life. That time he happened to say that he was also from India.
मी त्याच्याशी त्याच्या लहानपणाबद्दल बोलत होतो. तेव्हा त्याच्या बोलण्यात आले की तोही भारतामधील आहे. ( mI tyAchyAshI tyAchyA lahAnapaNAbaddal bolat hoto. tevhA tyAchyA bolaNyAt Ale kI tohI bhAratAmadhIl Ahe.)

I was going to office when I happened to hear about auto-rickshaw-strike.
मी ऑफिसला चाललो होतो तेव्हा रिक्षांच्या संपाबद्दल माझ्या ऐकण्यात आले.
(mI ~ophisalA chAlalo hoto tevhA rikShAMchyA saMpAbaddal mAjhyA aikaNyAt Ale)

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